DVGeometry
- class pygeo.parameterization.DVGeo.DVGeometry(fileName, *args, isComplex=False, child=False, faceFreeze=None, name=None, kmax=4, volBounds=None, **kwargs)[source]
A class for manipulating geometry.
The purpose of the DVGeometry class is to provide a mapping from user-supplied design variables to an arbitrary set of discrete, three-dimensional coordinates. These three-dimensional coordinates can in general represent anything, but will typically be the surface of an aerodynamic mesh, the nodes of a FE mesh or the nodes of another geometric construct.
In a very general sense, DVGeometry performs two primary functions:
Given a new set of design variables, update the three-dimensional coordinates: \(X_{DV}\rightarrow X_{pt}\) where \(X_{pt}\) are the coordinates and \(X_{DV}\) are the user variables.
Determine the derivative of the coordinates with respect to the design variables. That is the derivative \(\frac{dX_{pt}}{dX_{DV}}\)
DVGeometry uses the Free-Form Deformation approach for geometry manipulation. The basic idea is the coordinates are embedded in a clear-flexible jelly-like block. Then by stretching moving and ‘poking’ the volume, the coordinates that are embedded inside move along with overall deformation of the volume.
- Parameters:
- fileNamestr
filename of FFD file. This must be a ascii formatted plot3D file in fortran ordering.
- isComplexbool
Make the entire object complex. This should only be used when debugging the entire tool-chain with the complex step method.
- childbool
Flag to indicate that this object is a child of parent DVGeo object
- faceFreezedict
A dictionary of lists of strings specifying which faces should be ‘frozen’. Each dictionary represents one block in the FFD. For example if faceFreeze =[‘0’:[‘iLow’],’1’:[]], then the plane of control points corresponding to i=0, and i=1, in block ‘0’ will not be able to move in DVGeometry.
- namestr
This is prepended to every DV name for ensuring design variables names are unique to pyOptSparse. Only useful when using multiple DVGeos with
addTriangulatedSurfaceConstraint()
- kmaxint
Maximum order of the splines used for the underlying formulation. Default is a 4th order spline in each direction if the dimensions allow.
- volBoundsdict
Dictionary where volume embedding bounds for each FFD volume is specified. Keys of the dictionary specifies the FFD volume index. Values are lists of lists. First list contains the min and max bounds for the u parameter, second v, third w. This parameter can also be set after initialization using the setVolBounds method. For example if the FFD has 3 volumes, setting volBounds to:
>>> volBounds = { >>> 0: [[0., 0.5], [0., 1.], [0., 1.]], >>> 1: [[0., 1.], [0.5, 1.], [0., 1.]] >>> }
will set the parametric bounds of the first and second volumes, while the third volume can still embed points using the usual bounds of 0 to 1 for all parametric directions. In this example, the first volume only embeds points if the u coordinate of the projection is between 0 and 0.5. Similarly, the second volume only embeds a point if the v coordinate of the projection is between 0.5 and 1.0. This is useful when multiple overlapping FFD volumes are used to either mimic circular or symmetric FFDs.
Examples
- The general sequence of operations for using DVGeometry is as follows::
>>> from pygeo import DVGeometry >>> DVGeo = DVGeometry('FFD_file.fmt') >>> # Embed a set of coordinates Xpt into the object >>> DVGeo.addPointSet(Xpt, 'myPoints') >>> # Associate a 'reference axis' for large-scale manipulation >>> DVGeo.addRefAxis('wing_axis', axis_curve) >>> # Define a global design variable function: >>> def twist(val, geo): >>> geo.rot_z['wing_axis'].coef[:] = val[:] >>> # Now add this as a global variable: >>> DVGeo.addGlobalDV('wing_twist', 0.0, twist, lower=-10, upper=10) >>> # Now add local (shape) variables >>> DVGeo.addLocalDV('shape', lower=-0.5, upper=0.5, axis='y')
- addChild(childDVGeo)[source]
Embed a child FFD into this object.
An FFD child is a ‘sub’ FFD that is fully contained within another, parent FFD. A child FFD is also an instance of DVGeometry which may have its own global and/or local design variables. Coordinates do not need to be added to the children. The parent object will take care of that in a call to
addPointSet()
.See https://github.com/mdolab/pygeo/issues/7 for a description of an issue with Child FFDs that you should be aware of if you are combining shape changes of a parent FFD with rotation or shape changes of a child FFD.
- Parameters:
- childDVGeoinstance of DVGeometry
DVGeo object to use as a sub-FFD
- addCompositeDV(dvName, ptSetName=None, u=None, scale=None)[source]
Add composite DVs. Note that this is essentially a preprocessing call which only works in serial at the moment.
- Parameters:
- dvNamestr
The name of the composite DVs
- ptSetNamestr, optional
If the matrices need to be computed, then a point set must be specified, by default None
- undarray, optional
The u matrix used for the composite DV, by default None
- scalefloat or ndarray, optional
The scaling applied to this DV, by default None
- addGlobalDV(dvName, value, func, lower=None, upper=None, scale=1.0, config=None)[source]
Add a global design variable to the DVGeometry object. This type of design variable acts on one or more reference axis.
- Parameters:
- dvNamestr
A unique name to be given to this design variable group
- valuefloat, or iterable list of floats
The starting value(s) for the design variable. This parameter may be a single variable or a numpy array (or list) if the function requires more than one variable. The number of variables is determined by the rank (and if rank ==1, the length) of this parameter.
- lowerfloat, or iterable list of floats
The lower bound(s) for the variable(s). A single variable is permissable even if an array is given for value. However, if an array is given for
lower
, it must be the same length asvalue
- funcpython function
The python function handle that will be used to apply the design variable
- upperfloat, or iterable list of floats
The upper bound(s) for the variable(s). Same restrictions as
lower
- scalefloat, or iterable list of floats
The scaling of the variables. A good approximate scale to start with is approximately 1.0/(upper-lower). This gives variables that are of order ~1.0.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- addLocalDV(dvName, lower=None, upper=None, scale=1.0, axis='y', volList=None, pointSelect=None, config=None)[source]
Add one or more local design variables ot the DVGeometry object. Local variables are used for small shape modifications.
- Parameters:
- dvNamestr
A unique name to be given to this design variable group
- lowerfloat
The lower bound for the variable(s). This will be applied to all shape variables
- upperfloat
The upper bound for the variable(s). This will be applied to all shape variables
- scalefloat
The scaling of the variables. A good approximate scale to start with is approximately 1.0/(upper-lower). This gives variables that are of order ~1.0.
- axisstr. Default is y
The coordinate directions to move. Permissible values are x, y and z. If more than one direction is required, use multiple calls to
addLocalDV()
with different axis values.- volListlist
Use the control points on the volume indices given in volList. You should use pointSelect = None, otherwise this will not work.
- pointSelectpointSelect object. Default is None Use a
pointSelect object to select a subset of the total number of control points. See the documentation for the pointSelect class in geo_utils. Using pointSelect discards everything in volList.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- Returns:
- Nint
The number of design variables added.
Examples
>>> # Add all variables in FFD as local shape variables >>> # moving in the y direction, within +/- 1.0 units >>> DVGeo.addLocalDV('shape_vars', lower=-1.0, upper= 1.0, axis='y') >>> # As above, but moving in the x and y directions. >>> nVar = DVGeo.addLocalDV('shape_vars_x', lower=-1.0, upper= 1.0, axis='x') >>> nVar = DVGeo.addLocalDV('shape_vars_y', lower=-1.0, upper= 1.0, axis='y') >>> # Create a point select to use: (box from (0,0,0) to (10,0,10) with >>> # any point projecting into the point along 'y' axis will be selected. >>> PS = geo_utils.PointSelect(type = 'y', pt1=[0,0,0], pt2=[10, 0, 10]) >>> nVar = DVGeo.addLocalDV('shape_vars', lower=-1.0, upper=1.0, pointSelect=PS)
- addLocalSectionDV(dvName, secIndex, lower=None, upper=None, scale=1.0, axis=1, pointSelect=None, volList=None, orient0=None, orient2='svd', config=None)[source]
Add one or more section local design variables to the DVGeometry object. Section local variables are used as an alternative to local variables when it is desirable to deform a cross-section shape within a plane that is consistent with the original cross-section orientation. This is helpful in at least two common scenarios:
- The original geometry has cross-sections that are not aligned with
the global coordinate axes. For instance, with a winglet, we want the shape variables to deform normal to the winglet surface instead of in the x, y, or z directions.
- The global design variables cause changes in the geometry that
rotate the orientation of the original cross-section planes. In this case, we want the shape variables to deform in directions aligned with the rotated cross-section plane, which may not be the x, y, or z directions.
- ** Warnings **
- Rotations in an upper level (parent) FFD will not propagate down
to the lower level FFDs due to limitations of the current implementation.
- Section local design variables should not be specified at the same
time as local design variables. This will most likely not result in the desired behavior.
- Parameters:
- dvNamestr
A unique name to be given to this design variable group
- lowerfloat
The lower bound for the variable(s). This will be applied to all shape variables
- upperfloat
The upper bound for the variable(s). This will be applied to all shape variables
- scalefloat
The scaling of the variables. A good approximate scale to start with is approximately 1.0/(upper-lower). This gives variables that are of order ~1.0.
- axisint
- The coordinate directions to move. Permissible values are
0: longitudinal direction (in section plane) 1: latitudinal direction (in section plane) 2: transverse direction (out of section plane)
If more than one direction is required, use multiple calls to addLocalSectionDV with different axis values.
1 ^ | o-----o--------o----|----o--------o--------o-----o | | | j | x---------> 0 | ^ | / | | o-----o--------o--/------o--------o--------o-----o / ----> i / 2
- pointSelectpointSelect object. Default is None
Use a pointSelect object to select a subset of the total number of control points. See the documentation for the pointSelect class in geo_utils. Using pointSelect discards everything in volList. You can create a PointSelect object by using, for instance: >>> PS = geo_utils.PointSelect(type = y, pt1=[0,0,0], pt2=[10, 0, 10]) Check the other PointSelect options in geo_utils.py
- volListlist
Use the control points on the volume indices given in volList. If None, all volumes will be included. PointSelect has priority over volList. So if you use PointSelect, the values defined in volList will have no effect.
- secIndexchar or list of chars
For each volume, we need to specify along which index we would like to subdivide the volume into sections. Entries in list can be i, j, or k. This index will be designated as the transverse (2) direction in terms of the direction of perturbation for the ‘axis’ parameter.
- orient0None, i, j, k, or numpy vector. Default is None.
Although secIndex defines the 2 axis, the 0 and 1 axes are still free to rotate within the section plane. We will choose the orientation of the 0 axis and let 1 be orthogonal. We have three options:
- <None> (default) If nothing is prescribed, the 0 direction will
be the best fit line through the section points. In the case of an airfoil, this would roughly align with the chord.
- <i,`j` or k> In this case, the 0 axis will be aligned
with the mean vector between the FFD edges corresponding to this index. In the ascii art above, if j were given for this option, we would average the vectors between the points on the top and bottom surfaces and project this vector on to the section plane as the 0 axis. If a list is given, each index will be applied to its corresponding volume in volList.
- <[x, y, z]> If a numpy vector is given, the 0 axis
will be aligned with a projection of this vector onto the section plane. If a numpy array of len(volList) x 3 is given, each vector will apply to its corresponding volume.
- orient2svd or ffd. Default is svd
How to compute the orientation 2 axis. SVD is the default behaviour and is taken from the svd of the plane points. ffd Uses the vector along the FFD direction of secIndex. This is required to get consistent normals if you have a circular-type FFD when the SVD will swap the normals.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- Returns:
- Nint
The number of design variables added.
Examples
>>> # Add all control points in FFD as local shape variables >>> # moving in the 1 direction, within +/- 1.0 units >>> DVGeo.addLocalSectionDV('shape_vars', secIndex='k', lower=-1, upper=1, axis=1)
- addPointSet(points, ptName, origConfig=True, coordXfer=None, **kwargs)[source]
Add a set of coordinates to DVGeometry
The is the main way that geometry, in the form of a coordinate list is given to DVGeometry to be manipulated.
- Parameters:
- pointsarray, size (N,3)
The coordinates to embed. These coordinates should all project into the interior of the FFD volume.
- ptNamestr
A user supplied name to associate with the set of coordinates. This name will need to be provided when updating the coordinates or when getting the derivatives of the coordinates.
- origConfigbool
Flag determine if the coordinates are projected into the undeformed or deformed configuration. This should almost always be True except in circumstances when the user knows exactly what they are doing.
- coordXferfunction
A callback function that performs a coordinate transformation between the DVGeo reference frame and any other reference frame. The DVGeo object uses this routine to apply the coordinate transformation in “forward” and “reverse” directions to go between the two reference frames. Derivatives are also adjusted since they are vectors coming into DVGeo (in the reverse AD mode) and need to be rotated. We have a callback function here that lets the user to do whatever they want with the coordinate transformation. The function must have the first positional argument as the array that is (npt, 3) and the two keyword arguments that must be available are “mode” (“fwd” or “bwd”) and “applyDisplacement” (True or False). This function can then be passed to DVGeo through something like ADflow, where the set DVGeo call can be modified as: CFDSolver.setDVGeo(DVGeo, pointSetKwargs={“coordXfer”: coordXfer})
An example function is as follows:
def coordXfer(coords, mode="fwd", applyDisplacement=True, **kwargs): # given the (npt by 3) array "coords" apply the coordinate transformation. # The "fwd" mode implies we go from DVGeo reference frame to the # application, e.g. CFD, the "bwd" mode is the opposite; # goes from the CFD reference frame back to the DVGeo reference frame. # the applyDisplacement flag needs to be correctly implemented # by the user; the derivatives are also passed through this routine # and they only need to be rotated when going between reference frames, # and they should NOT be displaced. # In summary, all the displacements MUST be within the if applyDisplacement == True # checks, otherwise the derivatives will be wrong. # Example transfer: The CFD mesh # is rotated about the x-axis by 90 degrees with the right hand rule # and moved 5 units below (in z) the DVGeo reference. # Note that the order of these operations is important. # a different rotation matrix can be created during the creation of # this function. This is a simple rotation about x-axis. # Multiple rotation matrices can be used; the user is completely free # with whatever transformations they want to apply here. rot_mat = np.array([ [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, -1], [0, 1, 0], ]) if mode == "fwd": # apply the rotation first coords_new = np.dot(coords, rot_mat) # then the translation if applyDisplacement: coords_new[:, 2] -= 5 elif mode == "bwd": # apply the operations in reverse coords_new = coords.copy() if applyDisplacement: coords_new[:, 2] += 5 # and the rotation. note the rotation matrix is transposed # for switching the direction of rotation coords_new = np.dot(coords_new, rot_mat.T) return coords_new
- addRefAxis(name, curve=None, xFraction=None, yFraction=None, zFraction=None, volumes=None, rotType=5, axis='x', alignIndex=None, rotAxisVar=None, rot0ang=None, rot0axis=[1, 0, 0], includeVols=[], ignoreInd=[], raySize=1.5)[source]
This function is used to add a ‘reference’ axis to the DVGeometry object. Adding a reference axis is only required when ‘global’ design variables are to be used, i.e. variables like span, sweep, chord etc — variables that affect many FFD control points.
There are two different ways that a reference can be specified:
The first is explicitly a pySpline curve object using the keyword argument curve=<curve>.
The second is to specify the xFraction variable. There are a few caveats with the use of this method. First, DVGeometry will try to determine automatically the orientation of the FFD volume. Then, a reference axis will consist of the same number of control points as the number of span-wise sections in the FFD volume and will be oriented in the streamwise (x-direction) according to the xPercent keyword argument.
- Parameters:
- namestr
Name of the reference axis. This name is used in the user-supplied design variable functions to determine what axis operations occur on.
- curvepySpline curve object
Supply exactly the desired reference axis
- xFractionfloat
Specify the parametric stream-wise (axis: 0) location of the reference axis node relative to front and rear control points location. Constant for every spanwise section.
- yFractionfloat
Specify the parametric location of the reference axis node along axis: 1 relative to top and bottom control points location. Constant for every spanwise section.
Note
if this is the spanwise axis of the FFD box, the refAxis node will remain in-plane and the option will not have any effect.
- zFractionfloat
Specify the parametric location of the reference axis node along axis: 2 relative to top and bottom control points location. Constant for every spanwise section.
Note
if this is the spanwise axis of the FFD box, the refAxis node will remain in-plane and the option will not have any effect.
- volumeslist or array or integers
List of the volume indices, in 0-based ordering that this reference axis should manipulate. If xFraction is specified, the volumes argument must contain at most 1 volume. If the volumes is not given, then all volumes are taken.
- rotTypeint
Integer in range 0->6 (inclusive) to determine the order that the rotations are made.
Intrinsic rotation, rot_theta is rotation about axis
x-y-z
x-z-y
y-z-x
y-x-z
z-x-y Default (x-streamwise y-up z-out wing)
z-y-x
z-x-y + rot_theta
z-x-y + rotation about section axis (to allow for winglet rotation)
- axis: str or numpy array of size 3
This parameter controls how the links between the control points and the reference axis are computed. If the value is set to “x”, “y”, or “z”, then the code will extend rays out from the control points in the direction specified in the “axis” variable, and it will compute the projection of the ray to the reference axis. This returns a point on the reference axis, which is taken as the other end of the link of the control point to the reference axis, where the other point of the link is the control point itself. This approach works well enough for most cases, but may not be ideal when the reference axis sits at an angle (e.g. wing with dihedral). For these cases, setting the axis value with an array of size 3 is the better approach. When axis is set to an array of size 3, the code creates a plane that goes through each control point with the normal that is defined by the direction of the axis parameter. Then the end of the links are computed by finding the intersection of this plane with the reference axis. The benefit of this approach is that all of the reference axis links will lie on the same plane if the original FFD control points were planar on each section. E.g., a wing FFD might have x chordwise, y spanwise out, and z up, but with a dihedral. The FFD control points for each spanwise section can lie on the x-z plane. In this case, we want the links to be in a constant-y plane. To achieve this, we can set the axis variable to [0, 1, 0], which defines the normal of the plane we want. If you want to modify this option and see its effects, consider writing the links between control points and the referece axis using the “writeLinks” method in this class.
- alignIndex: str
FFD axis along which the reference axis will lie. Can be i, j, or k. Only necessary when using xFraction.
- rotAxisVar: str
If rotType == 8, then you must specify the name of the section local variable which should be used to compute the orientation of the theta rotation.
- rot0ang: float
If rotType == 0, defines the offset angle of the (child) FFD with respect to the main system of reference. This is necessary to use the scaling functions scale_x, scale_y, and scale_z with rotType == 0. The axis of rotation is defined by rot0axis.
- rot0axis: list
If rotType == 0, defines the rotation axis for the rotation offset of the FFD grid given by rot0ang. The variable has to be a list of 3 floats defining the [x,y,z] components of the axis direction. This is necessary to use the scaling functions scale_x, scale_y, and scale_z with rotType == 0.
- includeVolslist
List of additional volumes to add to reference axis after the automatic generation of the ref axis based on the volumes list using xFraction.
- ignoreIndlist
List of indices that should be ignored from the volumes that were added to this reference axis. This can be handy if you have a single volume but you want to link different sets of indices to different reference axes.
- raySizefloat
Used in projection to find attachment point on reference axis. See full description in pyNetwork.projectRays function doc string. In most cases the default value is sufficient. In the case of highly swept wings its sometimes necessary to increase this value.
- Returns:
- nAxisint
The number of control points on the reference axis.
Notes
One of curve or xFraction must be specified.
Examples
>>> # Simple wing with single volume FFD, reference axis at 1/4 chord: >>> DVGeo.addRefAxis('wing', xFraction=0.25) >>> # Multiblock FFD, wing is volume 6. >>> DVGeo.addRefAxis('wing', xFraction=0.25, volumes=[6]) >>> # Multiblock FFD, multiple volumes attached refAxis >>> DVGeo.addRefAxis('wing', myCurve, volumes=[2,3,4])
- addShapeFunctionDV(dvName, shapes, lower=None, upper=None, scale=1.0, config=None)[source]
Add shape function design variables to the DVGeometry. Shape functions contain displacement vectors for one or more FFD control points and can be used to define design variables that move a set of control points together according to some shape function determined by the user.
- Parameters:
- dvNamestr
A unique name to be given to this design variable group
- shapeslist of dictionaries, or a single dictionary
If a single dictionary is provided, it will be converted to a list with a single entry. The dictionaries in the list provide the shape functions for each DV; so a list with N dictionaries will result in N DVs. The dictionary keys are global point indices, and the values are 3d numpy arrays that prescribe the direction of the shape function displacement for that node. The magnitudes of the arrays determine how much the FFD point moves with a unit change in the DV. If an FFD point is controlled by multiple shape DVs, the changes from each shape function is superposed in the order shape functions are sorted in the list. The order of the shape functions does not matter because the final control point location only depends on the shapes and magnitude of the DV. However, the order of the shapes must be consistent across processors when running in parallel.
- lowerfloat, or array size (N)
The lower bound for the variable(s). If a single float is provided, it will be applied to all shape variables. If an array is provided, it will be applied to each individual shape function.
- upperfloat, or array size (N)
The upper bound for the variable(s). If a single float is provided, it will be applied to all shape variables. If an array is provided, it will be applied to each individual shape function.
- scalefloat, or array size (N)
The scaling of the variables. A good approximate scale to start with is approximately 1.0/(upper-lower). This gives variables that are of order ~1.0. If a single value is provided, it will be applied to all shape functions.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- Returns:
- Nint
The number of design variables added.
Examples
We can add two shape functions as follows. The first shape moves the FFD control points on indices 0,0,0 and 0,0,1 together in the +y direction. A value of 1.0 for this DV will result in these points moving by 1 distance unit. The second shape moves the point at 1,0,0 in the same direction and two other points at 1,0,1 and 2,0,1 in the same direction but by half the magnitude.
>>> lidx = DVGeo.getLocalIndex(0) >>> dir_up = np.array([0.0, 1.0, 0.0]) >>> shape_1 = {lidx[0, 0, 0]: dir_up, lidx[0, 0, 1]: dir_up} >>> shape_2 = {lidx[1, 0, 0]: dir_up, lidx[1, 0, 1]: dir_up * 0.5, lidx[2, 0, 1]: dir_up * 0.5, } >>> shapes = [shape_1, shape_2] >>> DVGeo.addShapeFunctionDV("shape_func", shapes)
- addSpanwiseLocalDV(dvName, spanIndex, axis='y', lower=None, upper=None, scale=1.0, pointSelect=None, volList=None, config=None)[source]
Add one or more spanwise local design variables to the DVGeometry object. Spanwise local variables are alternative form of local shape variables used to apply equal DV changes in a chosen direction. Some scenarios were this could be useful are:
2D airfoil shape optimization. Because adflow works with 3D meshes, 2D problems are represented my a mesh a single cell wide. Therefor, to change the 2D representation of the airfoil both sides of the mesh must be moved equally. This can be done with the addition of linear constraints on a set of local shape variables, however this approach requires more DVs than necessary (which complicates DV sweeps) and the constaints are only enforced to a tolerance. Using spanwise local design variables insures the airfoil is always correctly represented in the 3D mesh using the correct amount of design variables.
3D wing optimization with constant airfoil shape. If the initial wing geometry has a constant airfoil shape and constant chord, then spanwise local dvs can be used to change the airfoil shape of the wing while still keeping it constant along the span of the wing.
- Parameters:
- dvNamestr
A unique name to be given to this design variable group
- spanIndexstr, (‘i’, ‘j’, ‘k’)
the axis of the FFD along which the DVs are constant all shape variables
- axisstr. Default is y
The coordinate directions to move. Permissible values are x, y and z. If more than one direction is required, use multiple calls to addLocalDV with different axis values.
- lowerfloat
The lower bound for the variable(s). This will be applied to all shape variables
- upperfloat
The upper bound for the variable(s). This will be applied to all shape variables
- scalefloat
The scaling of the variables. A good approximate scale to start with is approximately 1.0/(upper-lower). This gives variables that are of order ~1.0.
- pointSelectpointSelect object. Default is None Use a
pointSelect object to select a subset of the total number of control points. See the documentation for the pointSelect class in geo_utils. Using pointSelect discards everything in volList.
- volListlist
Use the control points on the volume indices given in volList. You should use pointSelect = None, otherwise this will not work.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- Returns:
- Nint
The number of design variables added.
Examples
>>> # Add all spanwise local variables >>> # moving in the y direction, within +/- 0.5 units >>> DVGeo.addSpanwiseLocalDV("shape", 'k', lower=-0.5, upper=0.5, axis="z", scale=1.0)
- addVariablesPyOpt(optProb, globalVars=True, localVars=True, sectionlocalVars=True, spanwiselocalVars=True, ignoreVars=None, freezeVars=None)[source]
Add the current set of variables to the optProb object.
- Parameters:
- optProbpyOpt_optimization class
Optimization problem definition to which variables are added
- globalVarsbool
Flag specifying whether global variables are to be added
- localVarsbool
Flag specifying whether local variables are to be added
- sectionlocalVarsbool
Flag specifying whether section local variables are to be added
- spanwiselocalVarsbool
Flag specifying whether spanwiselocal variables are to be added
- ignoreVarslist of strings
List of design variables the user doesn’t want to use as optimization variables.
- freezeVarslist of string
List of design variables the user wants to add as optimization variables, but to have the lower and upper bounds set at the current variable. This effectively eliminates the variable, but it the variable is still part of the optimization.
- applyToChild(iChild)[source]
This function is used to apply the changes in the parent FFD to the child FFD points and child reference axis points.
- checkDerivatives(ptSetName)[source]
Run a brute force FD check on ALL design variables
- Parameters:
- ptSetNamestr
name of the point set to check
- computeTotalJacobian(ptSetName, config=None)[source]
Return the total point jacobian in CSR format since we need this for TACS
- computeTotalJacobianCS(ptSetName, config=None)[source]
Return the total point jacobian in CSR format since we need this for TACS
- computeTotalJacobianFD(ptSetName, config=None)[source]
This function takes the total derivative of an objective, I, with respect the points controlled on this processor using FD. We take the transpose prodducts and mpi_allreduce them to get the resulting value on each processor. Note that this function is slow and should eventually be replaced by an analytic version.
- convertDictToSensitivity(dIdxDict)[source]
This function performs the reverse operation of convertSensitivityToDict(); it transforms the dictionary back into an array. This function is important for the matrix-free interface.
- Parameters:
- dIdxDictdictionary
Dictionary of information keyed by this object’s design variables
- Returns:
- dIdxarray
Flattened array of length getNDV().
- convertSensitivityToDict(dIdx, out1D=False, useCompositeNames=False)[source]
This function takes the result of totalSensitivity and converts it to a dict for use in pyOptSparse
- Parameters:
- dIdxarray
Flattened array of length getNDV(). Generally it comes from a call to totalSensitivity()
- out1Dboolean
If true, creates a 1D array in the dictionary instead of 2D. This function is used in the matrix-vector product calculation.
- useCompositeNamesboolean
Whether the sensitivity dIdx is with respect to the composite DVs or the original DVGeo DVs. If False, the returned dictionary will have keys corresponding to the original set of geometric DVs. If True, the returned dictionary will have replace those with a single key corresponding to the composite DV name.
- Returns:
- dIdxDictdictionary
Dictionary of the same information keyed by this object’s design variables
- demoDesignVars(directory, includeLocal=True, includeGlobal=True, pointSet=None, CFDSolver=None, callBack=None, freq=2)[source]
This function can be used to “test” the design variable parametrization for a given optimization problem. It should be called in the script after DVGeo has been set up. The function will loop through all the design variables and write out a deformed FFD volume for the upper and lower bound of every design variable. It can also write out deformed point sets and surface meshes.
- Parameters:
- directorystr
The directory where the files should be written.
- includeLocalboolean, optional
False if you don’t want to include the shape variables.
- includeGlobalboolean, optional
False if you don’t want to include global variables.
- pointSetstr, optional
Name of the point set to write out. If None, no point set output is generated.
- CFDSolverstr, optional
An ADflow instance that will be used to write out deformed surface meshes. This instance must have as members:
This DVGeometry object (set using
CFDSolver.setDVGeo
)A mesh warping object from IDWarp (set using
CFDSolver.setMesh
)An AeroProblem (set using
CFDSolver.setAeroProblem
)
If CFDSolver is None, no surface mesh output is generated.
- callBackfunction, optional
This allows the user to perform an additional task at each new design variable iteration. The callback function must take two inputs:
the output directory name (str) and
the iteration count (int).
- freqint, optional
Number of snapshots to take between the upper and lower bounds of a given variable. If greater than 2, will do a sinusoidal sweep.
- extractCoef(axisID)[source]
Extract the coefficients for the selected reference axis. This should be used only inside design variable functions
- extractS(axisID)[source]
Extract the parametric positions of the control points. This is usually used in conjunction with extractCoef()
- getFlattenedChildren()[source]
Return a flattened list of all DVGeo objects in the family hierarchy.
- getLocalIndex(iVol, comp=None)[source]
Return the local index mapping that points to the global coefficient list for a given volume
- getNDV()[source]
Return the total number of design variables this object has.
- Returns:
- nDVint
Total number of design variables
- getSymmetricCoefList(volList=None, pointSelect=None, tol=1e-08, getSymmPlane=False)[source]
Determine the pairs of coefs that need to be constrained for symmetry.
- Parameters:
- volListlist
Use the control points on the volume indices given in volList
- pointSelectpointSelect object. Default is None Use a
pointSelect object to select a subset of the total number of control points. See the documentation for the pointSelect class in geo_utils.
- tolfloat
Tolerance for ignoring nodes around the symmetry plane. These should be merged by the network/connectivity anyway
- getSymmPlanebool
If this flag is set to True, we also return the points on the symmetry plane for all volumes. e.g. a reduced point on the symmetry plane with the same indices on both volumes will show up as the same value in both arrays. This is useful when determining the indices to ignore when adding pointsets. The default behavior will not include the points exactly on the symmetry plane. this is more useful for adding them as linear constraints
- Returns:
- indSetAlist of ints
One half of the coefs to be constrained
- indSetBlist of ints
Other half of the coefs to be constrained
- getValues()[source]
Generic routine to return the current set of design variables. Values are returned in a dictionary format that would be suitable for a subsequent call to
setDesignVars()
- Returns:
- dvDictdict
Dictionary of design variables
- getVarNames(pyOptSparse=False)[source]
Return a list of the design variable names. This is typically used when specifying a wrt= argument for pyOptSparse.
- Parameters:
- pyOptSparsebool
Flag to specify whether the DVs returned should be those in the optProb or those internal to DVGeo. Only relevant if using composite DVs.
Examples
optProb.addCon(…..wrt=DVGeo.getVarNames())
- restoreCoef(coef, axisID)[source]
Restore the coefficients for the selected reference axis. This should be used inside design variable functions
- sectionFrame(sectionIndex, sectionTransform, sectionLink, ivol=0, orient0=None, orient2='svd')[source]
This function computes a unique reference coordinate frame for each section of an FFD volume. You can choose which axis of the FFD you would like these sections to be defined by. For example, if we have a wing with a winglet, the airfoil sections which make up the wing will not all lie in parallel planes. We want to find a reference frame for each of these airfoil sections so that we can constrain local control points to deform within the sectional plane. Let’s say the wing FFD is oriented with indices:
- i
along chord
- j
normal to wing surface
- k
along span
If we choose
sectionIndex='k'
, this function will compute a frame which has two axes aligned with the k-planes of the FFD volume. This is useful because in some cases (as with a winglet), we want to perturb sectional control points within the section plane instead of in the global coordinate directions.Assumptions:
the normal direction is computed along the block index with size 2
all point for a given sectionIndex lie within a plane
- Parameters:
- sectionIndexi, j, or k
This the index of the FFD which defines a section plane.
- orient0None, i, j, k, or numpy vector. Default is None.
Although secIndex defines the ‘2’ axis, the ‘0’ and ‘1’ axes are still free to rotate within the section plane. We will choose the orientation of the ‘0’ axis and let ‘1’ be orthogonal. See addLocalSectionDV for a more detailed description.
- ivolinteger
Volume ID for the volume in which section normals will be computed.
- alignStreamwisex, y, or z (optional)
If given, section frames are rotated about the k-plane normal so that the longitudinal axis is parallel with the given streamwise direction.
- rootGloballist
List of sections along specified axis that will be fixed to the global coordinate frame.
- Returns:
- sectionTransformlist of 3x3 arrays
List of transformation matrices for the sections of a given volume. Transformations are set up from local section frame to global frame.
- setDesignVars(dvDict)[source]
Standard routine for setting design variables from a design variable dictionary.
- Parameters:
- dvDictdict
Dictionary of design variables. The keys of the dictionary must correspond to the design variable names. Any additional keys in the dictionary are simply ignored.
- setVolBounds(volBounds)[source]
Routine to set the FFD embedding volume bounds after initialization
- Parameters:
- volBoundsdict
Dictionary where volume embedding bounds for each FFD volume is specified. Keys of the dictionary specifies the FFD volume index. Values are lists of lists. First list contains the min and max bounds for the u parameter, second v, third w. This parameter can also be set after initialization using the setVolBounds method. For example if the FFD has 3 volumes, setting volBounds to:
>>> volBounds = { >>> 0: [[0., 0.5], [0., 1.], [0., 1.]], >>> 1: [[0., 1.], [0.5, 1.], [0., 1.]] >>> }
will set the parametric bounds of the first and second volumes, while the third volume can still embed points using the usual bounds of 0 to 1 for all parametric directions. In this example, the first volume only embeds points if the u coordinate of the projection is between 0 and 0.5. Similarly, the second volume only embeds a point if the v coordinate of the projection is between 0.5 and 1.0. This is useful when multiple overlapping FFD volumes are used to either mimic circular or symmetric FFDs.
- totalSensitivity(dIdpt, ptSetName, comm=None, config=None)[source]
This function computes sensitivity information.
Specifically, it computes the following: \(\frac{dX_{pt}}{dX_{DV}}^T \frac{dI}{d_{pt}}\)
- Parameters:
- dIdptarray of size (Npt, 3) or (N, Npt, 3)
This is the total derivative of the objective or function of interest with respect to the coordinates in ‘ptSetName’. This can be a single array of size (Npt, 3) or a group of N vectors of size (Npt, 3, N). If you have many to do, it is faster to do many at once.
- ptSetNamestr
The name of set of points we are dealing with
- commMPI.IntraComm
The communicator to use to reduce the final derivative. If comm is None, no reduction takes place.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- Returns:
- dIdxDictdic
The dictionary containing the derivatives, suitable for pyOptSparse
Notes
The
child
andnDVStore
options are only used internally and should not be changed by the user.
- totalSensitivityProd(vec, ptSetName, config=None)[source]
This function computes sensitivity information.
Specifically, it computes the following: \(\frac{dX_{pt}}{dX_{DV}} \times\mathrm{vec}\)
This is useful for forward AD mode.
- Parameters:
- vecdictionary whose keys are the design variable names, and whose
values are the derivative seeds of the corresponding design variable.
- ptSetNamestr
The name of set of points we are dealing with
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- Returns:
- xsdotarray (Nx3) -> Array with derivative seeds of the surface nodes.
- totalSensitivityTransProd(vec, ptSetName, config=None)[source]
This function computes sensitivity information.
Specifically, it computes the following: \(\frac{dX_{pt}}{dX_{DV}}^T \times\mathrm{vec}\)
This is useful for reverse AD mode.
- Parameters:
- dIdptarray of size (Npt, 3) or (N, Npt, 3)
This is the total derivative of the objective or function of interest with respect to the coordinates in ‘ptSetName’. This can be a single array of size (Npt, 3) or a group of N vectors of size (Npt, 3, N). If you have many to do, it is faster to do many at once.
- ptSetNamestr
The name of set of points we are dealing with
- commMPI.IntraComm
The communicator to use to reduce the final derivative. If comm is None, no reduction takes place.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- Returns:
- dIdxDictdic
The dictionary containing the derivatives, suitable for pyOptSparse
Notes
The
child
andnDVStore
options are only used internally and should not be changed by the user.
- update(ptSetName, childDelta=True, config=None)[source]
This is the main routine for returning coordinates that have been updated by design variables.
- Parameters:
- ptSetNamestr
Name of point-set to return. This must match ones of the given in an
addPointSet()
call.- childDeltabool
Return updates on child as a delta. The user should not need to ever change this parameter.
- configstr or list
Define what configurations this design variable will be applied to Use a string for a single configuration or a list for multiple configurations. The default value of None implies that the design variable applies to ALL configurations.
- updateCalculations(new_pts, isComplex, config)[source]
The core update routine. pulled out here to eliminate duplication between update and update_deriv.
- updatePyGeo(geo, outputType, fileName, nRefU=0, nRefV=0)[source]
Deform a pyGeo object and write to a file of specified type given the (deformed) current state of the FFD object.
- Parameters:
- geopyGeo object
A pyGeo object containing an initialized object
- outputType: str
Type of output file to be written. Can be iges or tecplot
- fileName: str
Filename for the output file. Should have no extension, an extension will be added
- nRefU: int or list of ints
Number of spline refinement points to add in the surface B-Spline u-direction. If scalar, it is applied across each surface. If list, the length must match the number of surfaces in the object and corresponding entries are matched with surfaces.
- nRefV: int or list of ints
Number of spline refinement points to add in the surface B-Spline v-direction. If scalar, it is applied across each surface. If list, the length must match the number of surfaces in the object and corresponding entries are matched with surfaces
- writeLinks(fileName)[source]
Write the links attaching the control points to the reference axes
- Parameters:
- fileNamestr
Filename for tecplot file. Should have .dat extension
- writePlot3d(fileName)[source]
Write the (deformed) current state of the FFD object into a plot3D file. This file could then be used as the base-line FFD for a subsequent optimization. This function is not typically used in a regular basis, but may be useful in certain situaions, i.e. a sequence of optimizations
- Parameters:
- fileNamestr
Filename of the plot3D file to write. Should have a .fmt file extension.
- writePointSet(name, fileName, solutionTime=None)[source]
Write a given point set to a tecplot file
- Parameters:
- namestr
The name of the point set to write to a file
- fileNamestr
Filename for tecplot file. Should have no extension, an extension will be added
- SolutionTimefloat
Solution time to write to the file. This could be a fictitious time to make visualization easier in tecplot.
- writeRefAxes(fileName)[source]
Write the (deformed) current state of the RefAxes to a tecplot file, including the children
- Parameters:
- fileNamestr
Filename for tecplot file. Should have a no extension,an extension will be added.
- writeTecplot(fileName, solutionTime=None)[source]
Write the (deformed) current state of the FFD’s to a tecplot file, including the children
- Parameters:
- fileNamestr
Filename for tecplot file. Should have a .dat extension
- SolutionTimefloat
Solution time to write to the file. This could be a fictitious time to make visualization easier in tecplot.